Periodontitis and arthritis

IS PERIODONTAL DISEASE A COMORBIDITY…? Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis

The disease involves inflammation of the joints, with cartilage degradation and joint deformity, swelling, and pain. PD and RA may associate bidirectionally. Both diseases display elevated circulating and target tissue levels of markers of inflammation and cytokine profiles of ‘tissue degrading’ nature, including increased production of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). RA is…

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Periodontitis and Respiratory diseases

IS PERIODONTAL DISEASE A COMORBIDITY…?Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Respiratory Diseases

Periodontal disease has been reported as an independent risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with a 2-fold increased risk of COPD in individuals with periodontal disease, after controlling for common confounders, such as smoking. Studies investigating a link between COPD and periodontitis remain preliminary and as such there is no clear evidence. Pneumonia,…

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Periodontitis and Diabetes

IS PERIODONTAL DISEASE A COMORBIDITY…?Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis have a very complex bidirectional relationship that involves genetic factors and pro-inflammatory mediators. Presence of periodontitis might impair insulin resistance which appears as hyperglycemia that produces advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In turn, AGEs lead to overproduction of IL-6, IL-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α). As a consequence, presence of…

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Periodontitis and Hypertension

IS PERIODONTAL DISEASE A COMORBIDITY…?Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Hypertension

Hypertension is associated with PD, and these conditions occur frequently in patients with greater attachment loss. Many patients with hypertension are treated with calcium antagonists that occasionally can cause gingival hyperplasia, which again may result in increased progression of PD. Since hypertension is a treatable risk factor for CVD, it is important to identify patients…

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Relationship Between Periodontal Disease, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease

IS PERIODONTAL DISEASE A COMORBIDITY…?Relationship Between Periodontal Disease, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease

Studies of inflammation and coronary artery disease (CAD) have shown that proinflammatory cytokines can recruit leukocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages to produce a local inflammatory response, resulting in smooth muscle cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. This can lead to accelerated atherosclerosis and, in some cases, instability in the fibrous cap leading to plaque rupture and…

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